Bodybuilding, Sports, Strength and Endurance
Over the last several decades, many researchers and clinicians have examined the effects of Beta-1, 3-D glucan on wound repair and other healing processes after injury even surgery. I offer an overview of how the immune system plays such a vital role in rapid recovery from these insults.
Over the last several decades, many researchers and clinicians have examined the effects of Beta-1, 3-D glucan and Astaxanthin on sports related activities, including strength and endurance enhancement, wound repair, and other healing processes after injury and surgery.
One will then realize the need to use Beta-1, 3-D glucan as part of your daily regimen." (Since we seldom plan ahead for accidents and injury.) The phagocytic phase of immune response begins within the first 2 to 6 hours after injury and proceeds for several days. "Macrophages and other phagocytic cells are extremely active at the damage site." (A phagocyte is an immune cell that eats and disposes of the damaged tissue. He is the Pac-Man of the immune system).
Evidence of injury comes form the increase in markers found in the blood following exercise, from the soreness in the muscles, and from direct examinations of samples of the damaged muscles. Studies demonstrate that some muscle fibers undergo degenerative changes following exercise. Macrophages and other phagocytic cells invade injured cells and adjacent tissues to accomplish the breakdown and removal of severely damages cells. The regenerative phase then restores the fiber to its normal condition. In the case of muscle fiber injury form exercise, the fibers adapt during this process so that future bouts of exercise of similar type, intensity, and duration cause less injury to the muscle. Repair of these fibers appears to be complete.
Researchers agree that macrophages are more ever-present than any other immune-derived cell associated with injury. Its role in injury repair is tissue remodeling and promotion of healing. Macrophage activities include removal of dead tissue and debris by eating up the old cells, chemical recycling, and the release of a wide spectrum of cellular cytokines (fax messages) to promote growth and regeneration properties. These activities positively affect the behavior of cells in the vicinity of the wound. Researchers have even explored the possible association of the "fax messages" with the ability of injured nerves to regenerate.
In a six-month, double-blind human study conducted by Dr. Curt Malmsten of Gustavsberg, Sweden, 4 mg of daily astaxanthin supplementation demonstrated a significant improvement (almost three times) of the strength and endurance vs base period in healthy young male subjects receiving the supplementation. The other group received a placebo and did not experience this level of improvement.
How does this happen? We know that the human body obtains its energy through respiration and the subsequent oxidation of ingested foodstuffs. We also know that these processes take place in the mitochondria of the cells, considered to be the powerhouses or energy producers of the cells.
In this energy-producing process, however, mitochondria produce as byproducts of respiration a great deal of singlet oxygen and other free radicals. According to the mitochondrial theory of aging, degradation done to the mitochondria is due largely through oxidative damage. This damage leaves the mitochondria as respiration-deficient and they are no longer considered respiratory competent. When a cell is no longer producing energy optimally, the strength and endurance of the individual declines.
Astaxanthin has also been shown to be a potent anti-inflammatory and may be an effective modality for the management of acute and chronic inflammation associated with certain diseases and conditions-useful for exercise-induced muscle damage, arthritis, and peptic ulcer disease as well as eczema and psoriasis.
When there is injury to tissue in the human body, a series of events at the vascular and cellular levels occurs, known as the inflammatory response. These include injury from bacteria or viruses and the associated-secreted toxins, excessive heat or cold, mechanical (such as a cut by glass or a crushing injury), excessive acids or alkalis or irradiation, or exercise-induced muscle damage.
As a result of excretions of free radical-generating enzymes called cytokines from the injured cells and surrounding vascular cells, the arterioles (small vessels that connect to the capillaries) constrict for a fleeting moment (ischemia) and then dilate (reperfusion), bringing an increase in the blood flow to the entire injured area.
White blood cells migrate from the bloodstream and adhere to the vessel walls for a moment. They then pass through the vessel walls to reside in the injured tissue.
This movement of the white blood cells through the vessel walls is the hallmark of the inflammatory response known as exudate. The injured cells release histamine and leukotaxine which cause the vessel walls to let proteins through - not a normal occurrence. These proteins take up and hold water in the injured tissue and the accumulation of this fluid at the site of injury is called swelling (edema).
This leaking blood plasma also delivers food and oxygen to the damaged tissue and may also dilute or wash away toxins at the site of injury. With the infusion of more oxygen to the damaged tissue, astaxanthin's potent antioxidant properties will protect the injured cells from further oxidative stress.
Conclusion on Bodybuilding, Sports, Strength and Endurance
To achieve maximum health, an appropriate amount of exercise should be performed every day. For those that wish to have peak physical conditioning, a much higher level of exercise is necessary.
Even without your immediate knowledge, tissue will become damaged and needs to be repaired. This process may be substantially enhanced by the daily use of a Beta-1, 3-D glucan and Astaxanthin product through its proven effects to improve macrophage, anti-inflammatory and other phagocytic cell functions.
This author is convinced that the daily use of Beta-1, 3-D glucan and Astaxanthin product will enhance overall immune function. In particular, I see it prudent to use the material regularly to improve the chance of rapid and complete repair of damage due to injury, regardless of whether the injury is accidental or planned.
Mechanisms of exercise-induced muscle fiber injury. Armstrong RB; Warren GL; Warren JA Exercise Biochemistry Laboratory, University of Georgia, Athens. Sports Med, 1991 Sep, 12:3 184-207
Initial events in exercise-induced muscular injury. Armstrong RB Department of Physical Education, University of Georgia, Athens 30602. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1990 Aug, 22:4, 429-35
Cross talk between the immune system and the nervous system in response to injury: implications for regeneration. Lotan M; Schwartz M Department of Neurobiology; Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Isreal. FASEB J, 1994 Oct, 8:13, 1026-33
Mechanisms of exercise-induced delayed onset muscular soreness: a brief review. Armstrong RB Med Sci Sports Exerc, 1984 Dec, 16:6, 529-38
Muscle damage and endurance events. Armstrong RB Sports Med, 1986 Sep-Oct, 3:5, 370-81
Malmsten, C., Dietary supplementation with astaxanthin-rich algal meal improves muscle endurance - a double blind study on male students. Unpublished study from the Karolinska Institut. Gustavsberg, Sweden, 1998.
Childs, G. V., Ph.D., Mitochondrial Substructure.
Wei, YH, Oxidative stress and mitochondrial DNA mutations in human aging, Proceedings of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine, January 1998: v.217(1) pp. 53-63.
Gershon, D., The mitochondrial theory of aging: is the culprit a faulty disposal system rather than indigenous mitochondrial alterations? Experimental Gerontology, August 1999: v. 34(5) pp. 613-619.
Takai, D., et al., Transcomplementation between different types of respiration-deficient mitochondria with different pathogenic mutant mitochondrial DNAs, Journal of Biology and Chemistry, April 16, 1999: v. 274(16) pp. 11199-11202.
Karolinska Institut. Gustavsberg, Sweden, 1998.
Kurashige, et al., Inhibition of Oxidative Injury of Biological Membranes by Astaxanthin, Physiological Chemistry and Physics and Medical NMR, 1990: 22(1), pp. 27-38.
Inflammatory Response in Human Disease, Encyclopaedia Britannica Online.
Lane, N., The effects of different models of exercise on indices of oxidative stress and free radical formation, Proceedings of the 1st Annual Post-Graduate Research Day, School of Physical Education, Sport and Leisure, June 15, 1999.
Evans, W., Ph.D., Exercise and Oxidative Stress: Effect of Vitamin E and Aging, Abstract from NIH Workshop: the Role of Dietary Supplements for Physically Active People, June 1996.
The Inflammatory Response: When the Body is First Invaded.