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Research - Medline Quotes

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The following are a series of one line quotes from the scientific literature. Cites may be obtained off Medline. Medline is one of the largest medicial research archives in the world

The emergence of multiple antibiotic-resistant microorganisms has led to a search for alternatives to traditional therapeutic regimens. Beta Glucan, an immunomoduator, can selectively enhance the microbicidal activities of neutrophils and macrophages without stimulating proinflammatory cytokine production.

Glucan is a potent reticuloendothelial-modulating agent whose immunobiological activity is mediated, in part, by an increase in the number and function of macrophages. Lysozyme concentrations were increased approximately sevenfold in some studies. Biologic response modifiers, like Beta Glucan, will modulate immunity, modify neoplastic (cancer) disease and increase resistance to microbial challenge. Glucan can enhance some elements of the immune system against staphylococcal infections.

Beta Glucan has been found to protect against infection with Babesia microti, an intra- erythrocytic protozoan parasite, nonspecific protection. Glucan has been shown to significantly inhibit renal necrosis associated with systemic staphylococcal diseases and showed enhanced survival. Glucan has been shown to increase peripheral leukocyte counts. Beta Glucan induced increase in phagocytosis and induced hyperplasia of macrophages. Glucan significantly enhanced survival when challenged systemically with Staphylococcus aureus.

These studies indicate that glucan confers an enhanced state of host defense against bacterial infections. With orally administered glucan, interleukin-2 was evaluated in treated animals and showed an increase. There was significant increase in polymorphonuclear leukocytes and peripheral monocyte number. A significant increase in number and in vitro candidacidal activity was also observed for alveolar (lung) macrophages. The resistance towards systemic infection with Candida albicans of Staphylococcus aureus increased, significantly reducing the growth of microorganisms in the kidneys of infected animals. Toxicological studies showed that glucan is highly tolerated. In the area of protective capacity in respiratory infection, Beta Glucan significantly increased rated of phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus.

Beta Glucan greatly increased numbers of macrophages in the lungs of glucan- treated rats; the lungs of glucan-treated mice appeared normal and that glucan can enhance intrapulmonary bacterial killing. The ability of glucan was shown to increase the number of lung macrophages resulting in increased bacterial ingestion. Particulate glucan resulted in significant reductions in the growth of a syngeneic anaplastic mammary carcinoma and melanoma and showed enhanced survival. Studies demonstrate that prophylaxis with Beta Glucan in combination with antibiotics provided enhanced protection against lethal challenge with Esherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus as compares with the use of antibiotics alone.

Dr. J. K. Czop, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. "The cell wall glucans of Saccharomyces cerevisiae [yeast cell wall] consist of two structurally distinct Beta-glucans: major components comprised of consecutively, 1,3-linked glucopyranosyl residues with small numbers of 1,6-linked branches, and minor components with consecutive 1,6-linkages and 1,3-branches."Browder W., et al.,

"Modification of Post-Operative C. albicans Sepsis by Glucan Immunostimulation," Int. J. Immunopharmac.; 6:19-26. 1984. Dept of Surg and Physiol, Tulane U Sch of Med, LA Quote: "These observations suggest that Biologic Response Modifiers such as glucan may be effectively employed in patients who are at risk for post-operative infections."*

Browder W., Williams D., Pretus H., et al; Beneficial Effect of Enhanced Macrophage Function in the Trauma Patients. Ann. Surg.; Vol 211: 605-613. 1990. Dept of Surg and Physiol, Tulane U Sch of Med, LA and Istituto Di Chirurgia D'Urgenza, U of Torino, Torino, Italy. * Quote: "Previous studies have demonstrated that glucan, a beta-1, 3-linked glucopyranose polymer, isolated from the inner cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a potent macrophage stimulant and is beneficial in the therapy of experimental bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases. Use of glucan in a murine model of hind-limb crush injury decreased macrophage PGE2 release while stimulating bone marrow proliferation."

This is just a sampling of the data that exists in abundance out of peer reviewed volumes. Anyone who takes the time to examine this data would be prudent to explore Beta Glucan as a source to help your immune system be all that it could be without the misuse, overuse, or abuse of antibiotics.


Summarized Studies

Studies Conducted at; HARVARD I NATIONAL CANCER INST I MAYO CLINIC I DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE I TULANE UNIVERSITY I BAYLOR COLLEGE OF MEDICINE I ARMED FORCES RADIOBIOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE I VANDERBILT

Studies conducted on; ABDOMINAL OR THORACIC SURGERY I CANCER I CANDIDA ALBICANS I CHOLESTEROL I DIABETES-E. COLI I FUNGAL INFECTION I HEPATITIS I HERPES SIMPLEX 1 I HIGH RISK SURGICAL PATIENTS I INFECTION PREVENTION I INTERLEUKIN I PARASITES I -PNEUMONIA I RADIATION I STAPHYLOCOCCAL I STAPHYLOCOCCUS I STRESS I TRAUMA I WOUNDS

ABDOMINAL OR THORACIC SURGERY - HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL (USA) "There were no adverse drug experiences....is safe and appears to be effective in the further reduction of the morbidity and cost of major surgery."

BACTERIAL INFECTIONS - BAYLOR COLLEGE OF MEDICINE; Wyde, P., "Beta-1,3-glucan activity in mice: intraperitoneal and oral applications." " Beta glucan, through the stimulation of host defense systems, creates a more supportive environment within the body to assist the primary killing action of the conventional agent."

CANCER, LUNG AND BREAST - NATIONAL CANCER INST (USA); "The initial 9 patients studied had malignant melanoma, adenosquamous carcinoma of the lung, or carcinoma of the breast. Control and experimental lesions were injected: subsequently biopsies were performed at varying intervals for histologic evaluation. Always when glucan or glucan and RF fraction were administered intralesionally, the size of the lesion was strikingly reduced in as short a period as 5 days. This reduction was associated with necrosis of the tumor and a monocytic infiltrate. In small lesions, resolution was complete, whereas in large lesions, resolution was partial.

CANCER - MAYO CLINIC (USA); "..... beta-glucan interacts with vitronectin and stimulates tumor necrosis factor alpha release from macrophage's."

CANCER - CHEM PHARM BULL (Japan); "Antitumor and immunomodulating activities of a beta-glucan...."

CANCER - UNIVERSITY OF TROMSO (Norway); "Macrophages stimulated by an insoluble beta 1-3-D-glucan from yeast cell walls were able to destroy tumour cells as measured by the release of radioactive label from prelabelled 14C-thymidine cells. Target cells were B-16 melanoma, P-815 mastocytoma, and the L-929 cell line. A significant target cell killing by macrophages stimulated by glucan was observed after 72-96 h."

CANDIDA ALBICANS - DEPARTMENT OF SURGERY, TULANE UNIVERSITY; "Protection against C. albicans was observed in the glucan-treated groups. ...These observations suggest that Biologic Response Modifiers such as glucan may be effectively employed in patients who are at risk for post-operative infections."

CHOLESTEROL (LDL) - OTTAWA CIVIC HOSPITAL (Canada); "CONCLUSIONS: The main component of the soluble fiber of oats, beta-glucan, significantly reduced the total and LDL cholesterol levels of hypercholesterolemic adults without changing HDL cholesterol."

CHOLESTEROL - DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (USA); "Beneficial reduction of cholesterol was obtained with modest amounts....."

DIABETES - OTTAWA CIVIC HOSPITAL (Canada); "A diet rich in beta-glucan may therefore be of benefit in the regulation of plasma glucose levels in subjects with Type 2 diabetes."

DIABETES - NESTLAE RESEARCH CENTER (Switzerland); "Diabetic individuals can benefit from diets that are high in beta-glucan, .."

E. COLI - TULANE UNIVERSITY (USA, La); "Glucan therapy also increased bone marrow proliferation. We conclude that (1) glucan enhances peritoneal neutrophil levels, (2) Peripheral blood neutrophils are increased following glucan and E. coli, (3) ip glucan increase bone marrow proliferation, .... Thus, the beneficial effect of glucan is mediated not only by activated macrophages, but also by the neutrophilic leukocyte."

E. COLI, STAPHYLOCOCCUS - DEPARTMENT OF PATHOLOGY, BRIGHAM AND WOMEN'S HOSPITAL (USA, Mass) "Mice challenged with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus were protected against lethal peritonitis by the intravenous administration of 10 micrograms of poly-beta 1-6-glucotriosyl-beta 1-3-glucopyranose (PGG) glucan per animal 4 to 6 h prior to bacterial challenge."

FUNGAL INFECTION - TULANE UNIVERSITY; "The broad spectrum of immunopharmacological activities of glucan includes not only the modification of certain bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections, but also inhibition of tumor growth."

HEPATITIS, VIRAL - SCIENCE (1980);"Thus glucan is capable of increasing survival, inhibiting hepatic necrosis, and maintaining an activated state of phagocytic activity in mice challenged with [mouse hepatitis virus strain] MHV-A59."

HERPES SIMPLEX 1 - PLANTA MED., 62:4, 301-7. (1996); "The antiviral effect of scleroglucan seems to be related to its binding with membrane glycoproteins of HSV-1 particles which impedes the complex interactions of the virus with the cell plasma membrane."

HIGH RISK SURGICAL PATIENTS - HARVARD MEDICAL SCHOOL (USA); "Patients who received PGG-glucan had significantly fewer infectious complications (3.4 infections per infected patient vs. 1.4 infections per infected patient, p = 0.05), decreased intravenous antibiotic requirement (10.3 days vs. 0.4 days, p = 0.04) and shorter intensive care unit length of stay (3.3 days vs. 0.1 days, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: PGG-glucan is safe and appears to be effective in the further reduction of the morbidity and cost of major surgery.

INFECTION PREVENTION - GYNECOLOGY & OBSTETRICS, 177:383-388. (1993); "The incidence of hospital pneumonia of 55% and sepsis of 35% confirms results of previous studies of patients with multitrauma. Glucan decreased pneumonia and sepsis to a significantly lower level of 9.5%....The mortality rate related to infection decreased from 30.0 to 4.8%. The lower number of instances of pneumonia and sepsis....decreased the period of time in the intensive care and the hospital, with a global reduction of 40% on hospital cost."

INTERLEUKIN - INT J IMMUNOPHARMACOL, 1987, 9:3, 261-7; "The study demonstrates that; (1) glucan will enhance IL-1 and IL-2 production and (2) elevations in lymphokine production can be maintained up to 12 days post-glucan"

PARASITES - TULANE UNIVERSITY (USA); "Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, infects humans and animals..... Glucan significantly (P less than 0.05) increased survival rate as denoted by 60%...."

PNEUMONIA - HOSPITAL ARTHUR RIBEIRO DE SABOYA (Brazil); "The mortality rate related to infection was 30.0 percent in patients in the control group and 4.8 percent in the group treated with glucan...."

RADIATION SURVIVABILITY- ARMED FORCES RADIOBIOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE (USA); "Immunomodulators, either microbial agents (e.g. glucan, TDM) or recombinant cytokines (e.g. Interleukin-1, colony-stimulating factor), can enhance hematopoietic and functional cell recovery after irradiation."

RADIATION - RADIOPROTECTIVE EFFECT; "These results suggest that early after irradiation glucan may mediate its radioprotection by enhancing resistance to microbial invasion via mechanisms not necessarily predicated on hemopoietic recovery. In addition, preliminary evidence suggests that glucan can also function as an effective free-radical scavenger."

RADIATION SURVIVABILITY; Abstract: "Glucan, a beta-1, 3 polyglucose, was administered to mice either 1h before or 1h after a 650 rad exposure to cobalt-60 radiation. Compared to radiation controls, glucan-treated mice consistently exhibited a more rapid recovery of pluripotent stem cells and committed granulocyte, macrophage and erythroid progenitor cells. This may partially explain the mechanism by which glucan also enhances survival in otherwise lethally irradiated mice."

STAPHYLOCOCCAL WOUND INFECTION - VANDERBILT UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MEDICINE (USA); "We conclude that PGG Glucan reduces the risk of staphylococcal abscess formation."

STRESS, PHYSICAL, OR EMOTIONAL - TOWNSEND LETTER FOR DOCTORS, (1996);"The following list includes benefits from the use of Beta 1,3-glucan supplementation: Professional and amateur athletes as well as people who work outdoors intensively. People under physical or emotional stress"

TRAUMA PATIENTS - TULANE UNIVERSITY (USA); "total mortality rate was significantly less in the glucan group (0% versus 29%) (p less then 0.05), the mortality rate from sepsis was not statistically different (0% versus 17.6%). Glucan therapy significantly decreased septic morbidity (9.5% versus 49%; p less than 0.05). Serum IL-1 had a greater increase in glucan patients on day 3 after trauma (143.4 +/- 19.3% versus 78.6 +/- 11.7%; p less than 0.05),..."

WOUND HEALING - EAST TENNESSEE STATE UNIVERSITY (USA); "These data indicate that macrophage modulation with glucan phosphate will increase tensile strength in experimental colon and skin wounds. These are just a few of the many studies on Beta Glucan, further, these studies do not reflect the results of any one product, or product line(s) shown to contain Beta Glucan. Also, the delivery methods of the Beta Glucan to the test subjects may have been of different types, two of which are oral and intravenous delivery.

You may research Beta Glucan, for yourself, on MEDLINE, one of the largest medical research/studies archive in the world. The Internet Address may be found at: http://www.healthgate.com.


Links

Medical Schools


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- A -

Abel, G. & Czop, J.K.; - "Stimulation of human monocyte beta-glucan receptors by glucan particles induces production of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta, "Int. J. Immunopharmacolol, 14: 1363-1373. 1992.*

Abel, G. & Czop, J.K., - "Activation of Human Monocyte GM-CSF and TNF-alpha. Production by Particulate Yeast Glucan," International Congress for Infectious Diseases, Montreal, Canada (abstract). 1990. * Dept of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Quote: "Beta-glucans are pharmacological agents that rapidly enhance the host resistance to a variety of biologic insults through mechanisms involving macrophage activation."

Adachi Y., Ohno N., Yacomae T.; - "Preparation and antigen specificity of an anti- (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan antibody," Biol Pharm bull 17: 1508-1512; 1994. *

Adachi Y., Ohno N., Yacomae T.; - "Inhibitory effect of beta-glucans on Zymosan-mediated hydrogen peroxide production by murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro," Biol Pharm Bull, 16: 462-467; 1993.

Adachi Y., Ohno N., Ohsawa M., Oikawa S.,Yacomae T.; - "Macrophage activation in vitro by chemically cross-linked (1--3)-beta-D-glucans," Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo), 38:988-992 1990. Laboratory of Immunopharmacology of Microbial Products, Tokyo College of Pharmacy, Japan. *

Ainsworth A.J., - "A beta-glucan inhibitable Zymosan receptor on channel catfish neutrophils," Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 41: 141-152. 1994. *

Almdahl SM, Bogwald J, Hoffman J, Seljelid R; - "Treatment of experimental peritonitis in rats by transfer of peritoneal mononuclear cells from rats injected with semisoluble aminated glucan." Acta Chir Scand 153(9): 535-539, Sep 1987. Dept of Surgery, University Hospital, Tromso, Norway. *

Almdahl SM, Bogwald J, Hoffman J, Seljelid R; - "The effect of splenectomy on Escherichia coli sepsis and its treatment with semisoluble aminated glucan," Scand J Gastroenterol 22(3): 261-267; Apr 1987. *

Almdahl SM, Bogwald J, Hoffman J, Seljelid R Giercksky KE; - "Protection by aminated glucan in experimental endogenous peritonitis," Eur Surg Res 19(2): 78-85, 1987. *

Almdahl SM, Seljelid R; - "Semisoluble animated glucan: long-term efficacy against an intraperitoneal E. coli challenge and its effect on formation of abdominal adhesions," Res Exp Med (Berlin) 187(5): 369-377, 198 . *

Alpha-Beta Corporation-Annual Report 1994; PGG-glucan, 1994. *

Andaluz E., Guillen A., Larriba G.; - "Preliminary evidence for a glucan acceptor in the yeast Candida albicans," Biochem J.; 240: 495-502. 1986.

Anti-free Radical Activity of Beta (1-3) glucan Molecule. Seporga Laboratories, Sophia Antipolis, France. Research Report. 1990.

AOKI, - Immunomodulating Agents: Properties and Mechanisms, Chirigos, eds, Marcel Dekker, 1984; 20:63-77. 1984.

Aono R., Hammura M. et al; - "Isolation of extracellular 28- and 42-kilodalton beta-1-3-glucanases and comparison of three beta-1, 3-glucanases produced by Bacillus circulans IAM1165," Appl. Environ. Microbiol 61: 122-129.1995

Artursson P et al; - "Macrophage stimulation with some structurally related polysaccharides," Scand J Immunol 25(3): 245-254, Mar 1987. *

- B -

Babineau, et al., - "A Phase II Multicenter, Double-Blind Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study of Three Dosages of an Immunomodulator (PGG-Glucan) in High Risk Surgical Patients", Arch. Surg.; 129:1204-1210. 1994. Dept of Surgery, Deaconess Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston MA. *

Babineau, et al., - "Randomized Phase I/II Trial of a Macrophage-Specific Immunomodulator (PGG-Glucan) in High Risk Surgical Patients", Annals of Surgery; 220: (5): 601-609. 1994. Dept of Surgery, Deaconess Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston MA. * Quote: "PGG-glucan is safe and appears to be effective in further reduction of the morbidity and cost of major surgery."*

Bacon J., et al., - "The Glucan Components of the Cell Wall of Baker's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Considered in Relation to its Ultrastructure," Chemical Abstracts, 71:109168c. 1991.

Bacon J., et al., - "The Glucan Components of the Cell Wall of Baker's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Considered in Relation to its Ultrastructure," Biochem J.; 114:557-567. 1969.

Baird et al., - "Investigation of the Polysaccharides Produced by Extracellular Glycosyltransferases from Streptococcus Mutans," Chemical Abstracts; vol. 77, No. 11, p. 242. Abs. No. 72399z. 1972.

Ballou CE; - "The yeast cell wall and cell surface;" The Molecular Biology of the Yeast Saccharomyces. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories. New York. p 335; 1982.

Barlin, et al., - Heterogeneity of Molecular Phagocytes, Forster & Landy, eds., Academic Press, New York, pp. 243-252. 1981.

Benach J.L., et al., - "Glucan as an adjuvant for a murine Babesia microti immunization trial," Infection and Immunity, 35(3): 947-951. 1982. Quote: "These observations demonstrate that glucan is an effective adjuvant in enhancing immunity to murine babesiosis."*

Beta (1-3) glucan 1.3 Glucan Activity in Mice: Intraperitoneal and Oral Applications. Baylor College of Medicine. Research Summary. 1989.

Beta (1-3) glucan: "I1-1 Cytokine Release after Oral Application in Mice". Baylor College of Medicine. Research Report. 1994.

Bogwald J, Johnson E, Hoffman J, Seljelid R, - "Lysosomal Glycosidase in Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages Stimulated in Vitro with Soluble and Insoluble Glucans". J. Leukocyte Biol.; 35: 357-371. 1984. *

Bogwald J, Johnson E, Seljelid R; - "The Cytotoxic Effect of Mouse Macrophages Stimulated in vitro by a beta. 1,3-D-Glucan from Yeast Cell Walls". Scand. J. Immuol. 15: 297-304. 1982. Institute of Med Bio, U of Tromso, Norway. Quote: " Macrophages stimulated by an insoluble beta 1-3-D-glucan from yeast cell walls were able to destroy tumor cells as measured by the release of radioactive label from prelabelled 14C-thymidine cells. Target cells were B-16 melanoma, P-815 mastocytoma, and the L-929 cell line. A significant target cell killing by macrophages stimulated by glucan was observed after 72-96 h."

Bone, R.C., - /Gram-negative sepsis. Background, clinical features and intervention. Chest; 100:802-808. 1991.

Bomford and Moreno, - "Mechanisms of the Anti-Tumor Effect of Glucans and Fructosans: A Comparison with C. Parvum". Br. J. Cancer; 36:41-48. 1977.

Boone C, Sdicu A, Laroche M, Bussey H; - "Isolation from Candida albicans of a functional homolog of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae KRE1 Gene, which is involved in cell wall beta-glucan synthesis," J Bacteriol 173(21); 6859-6864, Nov 1991. *

Boone C., Sommer SS, Hensel A., Bussey H., - "Yeast KRE genes provide evidence for a pathway of cell wall beta-glucan assembly," J Cell Biol; 110: 1833-1843. 1990.

Borriss, et al., - "Molecular cloning of a gene coding for thermostable beta-glucanase from Bacillus macerns," J. Basic Microbiol; 28:3-10. 1988.

Borriss, et al., - "Expressions in Escherichia coli of a cloned beta-glucanase gene from Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens," Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol; 22:63-71. 1985.

Borriss, - Purification and characterization of an extracelluar beta-glucanase from Bacillus IMET B376 (1)), Z. Alg. Mikrobiologie; 21:7-17. 1981.

Borriss, et al., - "Beta-1, 3-1,4-glucanase in sporeforming microorganisms. V. The efficiency of beta-glucanase in reducing the viscosity of wort", Zbl. Bakt II Abt. 136:324-329. 1981.

Bousquet M., Escoula L. et al; "Immunopharmacologic study in mice of 2 beta-1, 3, beta-1, 6 polysaccharides (Scleroglucan and PSAT) on the activation of macrophages and T lymphocytes," Ann Rech Vet 20: 165-173. 1989. Station of Pharmacologie-Toxicologie, INRA, Toulouse, France. * Quote: "...PSAT and scleroglucan favorably affect the non-specific host defense and cellular immune response in mice."

Bousquet M., Escoula L., Pippy B, Besssieres MH, Chavant L, Seguela JP, "Enhancement of Resistance of mice Toxoplasma gondi by 2 polysaccharides beta (1-3) glucan 1-3, beta (1-3) glucan 1-6 (PSAT and Scleroglucan)" Ann Parasitol Hum Comp., ^63 (6): 398-409. 1988. *

Bowers G., J. Patchen MLl, et al, "Glucan enhances survival in an intraabdominal infection model," J Surg Res 47(2): 183-188; Aug 1989. *

Broach JR, Pringle JR and Jones EW; "The Molecular and Cellular Biology of the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae;" Genome Dynamics, Protein Synthesis, and Energetics; Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York. 1991.

Browder W., Williams D., Pretus H., et al; Beneficial Effect of Enhanced Macrophage Function in the Trauma Patients. Ann. Surg.; Vol 211: 605-613. 1990. Dept of Surg and Physiol, Tulane U Sch of Med, LA and Istituto Di Chirurgia D'Urgenza, U of Torino, Torino, Italy. * Quote: "Previous studies have demonstrated that glucan, a beta-1, 3-linked glucopyranose polymer, isolated from the inner cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a potent macrophage stimulant and is beneficial in the therapy of experimental bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases. Use of glucan in a murine model of hind-limb crush injury decreased macrophage PGE2 release while stimulating bone marrow proliferation."

Browder Iw, Sherwood E., Williams D., Jones E., Mcnamee R., Diluzio N., "Protective effect of glucan-enhanced macrophage function in experimental pancreatitis", Am J Surg.; 1153 (1): 25-33. 1987.

Browder W., Williams D., Sherwood E., McNamee R., Jones E., Diluzio N., "Synergistic effect of nonspecific immunostimulation and antibiotics in experimental peritonitis", Surgery 102 (2): 206-214. 1987*

Browder W., et al., "Modification of Post-Operative C. albicans Sepsis by Glucan Immunostimulation," Int. J. Immunopharmac.; 6:19-26. 1984. Dept of Surg and Physiol, Tulane U Sch of Med, LA Quote: "These observations suggest that Biologic Response Modifiers such as glucan may be effectively employed in patients who are at risk for post-operative infections."*

Browder W., et al., "Protective Effect of Nonspecific Immunostimulation in Post Splenectomy Sepsis". J. Surg. Res.; 35: 474-479. 1983. Dept of Surg and Physiol, Tulane U Sch of Med, LA * Quote: "This study reports the use of glucan, a beta-1, 3-polyclucose, as a nonspecific immunostimulant for postsplenectomy pneumococcal sepsis. ...Nonspecific immunostimulation appears to have significant potential as a treatment strategy against postplenectomy infection."

Browder, W., Survey of Immunological Research, 1983; 2:229-301. 1983.

Browder W., et al., Immunomodulation by Microbial Products and Related Synthetic Compounds, Yamamura et al., eds. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam; pp. 354-357. 1982.

Brown Jl, et al; "A mutational analysis of killer toxin resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae identifies new genes involved in cell wall (1-->6)-beta-glucan synthesis," Genetics 133(4) 837-849, Apr 1993. *

Buddle BM, et al, "Protective effect of glucan against experimentally induced staphylococcal mastitis in ewes." Vet Microbiol 16(1): 67-76, Jan 1988.

Bulone V., Fevre m.; "A 34-kilodalton polypeptide is associated with 1,3-beta-glucan synthase activity from the fungus Saprolegnia monoica," FEMS Microbiol Lett: 140: 145-150, 1996.

Burgaleta C., Goide D. W.; Increased granulopoiesis and macrophage production in glucan-treated mice; Chirigos MA, ed. Immune Modulation and Control of Neoplosia by Adjuvant Therapy. New York: Raven Press, 195-219, 1978.

Burgaleta C., Territo M.C., Quan C.G., Goide D.W.; Glucan activated macrophages: functional characteristics and surface morphology; J Reticuloendothel Soc 23: 195-204. 1978.

Burgaleta, C. and Golde, D.W.; "Effect of Glucan on Granulopoiesis and Macrophage Genesis in Mice". Cancer Research; 37:1739-1742; Jun 1977. *

Cain J.A., Newman S.L., Ross G.D., "Role of complement receptor type three and serum opsonins in the neutrophil response to yeast," Complement 4: 75-86.1987.

Campbell I And Duffus jh; eds., "Yeast." 1988.

Carrow, D.J.; "Beta-1, 3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator," Townsend Letter; June 1996.

Cerenius L., Liang Z., Duvie B., et al, "Structure and biological activity of a 1,3 beta-D-glucan-binding protein in crustacean blood," J. Biol Chem 269: 29462-29467. 1994.

Chen Y-h Riby Y., Srivastava P., Bartholomew J., Denison M, Bjeldanes L.; Regulation of CYP1A1 by Indolo{3,2-b} Carbazole in Murine Hepatoma Cells. J Biol Chem.; 270(38): 22548-55. 1995.

Chihara G., et al., "Lentinan as a Host Defense Potentiator (HPD)," Int. J. Immunotherapy; V (4): 145-154. 1989.

Chihara G., Rivista di Immunolog, ed. Immunofarm.; 5: (2): 85-97. 1983.

Chirigos M.A., et al, Cancer Research; 38:1085-1091. 1978.

Cisreros RL, Gibson FC 3, Tzianabos AO; "Passive transfer of poly- (1-6)-beta-Glucotrisyl- (1-3)-beta glucopyranose glucan protection against lethal infection in an animal model of intra-abdominal sepsis," Infect Immun 64(6): 2201-2205, Jun 1996. Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA. *

Clark A.E., Stone B.A.; "Beta-glucan hydrolases from Aspergillus niger. Isolation of a beta- (1-4)-glucan hydrolase and some properties of the beta- (1-3)-glucan-hydrolase components," Bichem J 96: 793-801. 1965.

Cook J. A., et al, Infection and Immunity; 40(3): 1038-1043. 1983.

Cook J. A., et al, "Immunomodulation of Protozoan Diseases". Immunolg. Res.; 2: 243-245. 1983.

Cook J. A., et al, "Protective Effect of Glucan against Visceral Leishmaniasis in Hamsters". Immun.; 37: 1261-1269. 1982.

Cook J. A., et al,, "Viscereal Leishmaniasis in Mice: Protective Effect of Glucan". J. Reticuloendothel; Soc. 27: 567-573. 1980.

Cross CE, Bancroft GJ, "Ingestion of acapsular Cryptococcus neoformans occurs via mannose and beta-glucan receptors, resulting in cytokine production and increased phagocytosis of the encapsulated form." Infect Immun 63:2604-2611. 1995. Dept Clin Sci, London Sch of Hyg and Trop Med, England.

Crueger, et al., Biotechnology: A Textbook of Industrial Microbiology; 2nd ed, pp. 9-58. 1989.

Czop JK, Janusz M; "Derivativized polysaccharides with biologic activity, method of their isolation, and uses therefor;" U.S. Patent 5057503, Issued Oct 15, 1991. *

Czop J.K., Kay J., Isolation and Characterization of B-glucan Receptors on Human Mononuclear Phagocytes. J. Exp. Medicine; V.173: 1511-1520. 1991. (Copy available) Dept of Med, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA. * Quote: "...human alveolar macrophages ...possess phagocytic receptors of comparable ligand specificity for the Beta glucans commonly present in yeast and fungi. Pathogens such as Candida and Aspergilli contain "yeast" glucan, cell wall components consisting of branched homopolymers of Beta-D-glucose with 1,3 consecutive and 1,6-crosslinked chains and prototypic of Saccharomyces cerevisiae."*

Czop J.K., Gurish M.F., Kadish J.l., Production and Isolation of Rabbit Anti-idiotypic Antibodies Directed Against the Human Monocyte Receptor for Yeast B-glucans. Journal of Immunology; 145:995-1001. 1990. Dept of Med, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA. * Quote (p1): "Beta-Glucans with 1,3 and/or 1,6 linkages are the major structural components of yeast and fungi and are pharmacological agents in animals...The cell wall glucans of S. cerevisiae consist of two structurally distinct Beta-glucans: major components comprised of consecutively, 1,3-linked glucopyranosyl residues with small numbers of 1,6-linked branches, and minor components with consecutive 1,6-linkages and 1,3-branches."

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Tzianabos AO, Cisneros RL; "Prophylaxis with the immunomodulator PGG glucan enhances antibiotic efficacy in rats infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria, "Ann NY Acad Sci 797: 285-287; Oct 1996. * Quote: "Results of these studies demonstrated that prophylaxis with PGG glucan in combination with antibiotics provided enhanced protection against lethal challenge with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus as compared with the use of antibiotics alone."

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Uchida, A.; "Method for treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome, "U.S. Patent 5424300 (A method for the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome, comprising administering a polysaccharide which further contains a beta (1-3) glucan-1, 3/1, 6-glucoside bond). Issued June 13, 1995.

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Van Der Vaart J.M., et al, and "The retention mechanism of cell wall proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wall-bound Cwp2p is beta-1, 6-glucosylated," Biochim Biophys Acta, 1291(3): 206-214. Dept Molecular Cell Biol, Utrecht U., The Netherlands. Dec 1996.

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Vetvicka V., Thornton B.P., Ross G.D.; "Soluble Beta-glucan Polysaccharide Binding to the Lectin Site of Neutrophil or Natural Killer Cell Complement Receptor Type 3 (CD11b/CD18) Generates a Primed State of the Receptor Capable of Mediating Cytotoxicity of iC3b-Opsonized Target Cells," Journal Clin Invest 98: 50-61. 1996. Div of Experimental Immuno and Immunopath, Dept Path, U of Louisville, KY. * Quote: "This investigation showed that soluble CR3-specific polysaccharides such as beta-glucan induced a primed state of CR3 that could trigger killing of iC3b-target cells that were otherwise resistant to cytotoxicity."

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Wang, W., Duen-Horng W., et al; "Polysaccharide-Induced protection of Tilapia, Tilapia aureus P., against Bacterial Infections in vivo," Dept of Veterinary Medicine.

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Williams D.L., Mcnamee R.B., Jones E.L., et al., "A method for the solubilization of a (1-2)-B-D-glucan isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae." Carbohydr Res.; 219: 203-213. 1991.

Williams D.L., Browder I. and Diluzio N.R., "Soluble phosphorylated glucan: methods and compositions for wound healing," U.S. Patent 4975421, Issued Dec 4, 1990. Quote: "The soluble phosphorylated glucans are useful for promoting the wound healing process. The soluble phosphorylated glucans are also useful for prophylactic and therapeutic applications against neoplastic, bacteria, viral, fungal and parasitic diseases."

Williams D.L., Browder I. and Diluzio N.R., "Methods and compositions for prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of infections," U.S. Patent 4900722, Issued Feb 13, 1990. Quote: "The soluble phosphorylated glucans are also useful for stimulating macrophage cells, either in vivo or in vitro, to produce a cytotoxic/cyctostatic factor effective against cancer cells."

Williams D.L., Sherwood E.R., Browder I.W., McNamee R.B., Jones E.L., Di Luzio N.R.; Pre-clinical Safety Evaluation of Soluble Glucan. International Journal Immunopharmac. 1988; 10: 405-411. 1988.

Williams D.L., et al; "Pre-clinical Safety Evaluation of Soluble Glucan", Int. J. Immunophamac. Vol. 10, No. 4: 405-414. 1988. * Dept of Phys, Tulane U Sch of Med, New Orleans, LA. *Quote: "Soluble glucan, a beta-1, 3-linked glucopyranose biological response modifier, is effective in the therapy of experimental neoplasia, infectious diseases and immune suppression."

Williams D.L., et al; "Therapeutic efficacy of glucan in a murine model of hepatic metastatic disease," Hepatology 5(2): 198-206. Mar 1985. *Quote: "...coincubation of particulate glucan with diverse populations of normal or tumor cells in vitro indicated that glucan exerted a direct cytostatic effect on sarcoma and melanoma cells and, in contrast, had a proliferative effect on normal spleen and bone marrow cells."

Williams D., Browder IW and Diluzio N.R, "Immunotherapeutic modification of Escherichia coli-induced experimental peritonitis and bacteremia by glucan," Surgery 93(3): 448-454. Mar 1983. * Quote: "These data denote that the intraperitoneal administration of glucan significantly modifies the course of E. coli-induced peritonitis and bacteremia due, in part, to glucan-induced enhancement of macrophage function."

Williams D.L. and Diluzio N.R.; "Modification of Experimental Viral Hepatitis by Glucan Induced Macrophage Activation". In the Reticuloendothelial System and Pathogenesis of Liver Disease, Liehr and Grun, eds. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press; pp. 363-368. 1983.

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Williams D.L. and Diluzio N.R.; "Glucan-Induced Modification of murine Viral Hepatitis". Science (1980), 208: 67-69. 1980. *Quote: "Thus glucan is capable of increasing survival, inhibiting hepatic necrosis, and maintaining an activated state of phagocytic activity in mice challenged with [mouse hepatitis virus strain] MHV-A59."

Williams D.L., et al; "Protective Effect of Glucan in Experimentally Induced Candidiasis". J. Reticuloendothel; Soc 23: 479-490. 1978.

Williams D.L, Diluzio NR, "Glucan induced modification of experimental Staphylococcus aureus infection in normal, leukemic and immunosuppressed mice." Adv Exp Med Biol 121(A): 291-306. 1979*

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Wooles, et al.; "Influence of Pre- and post-X-Irradiation Zymosan Administration on reticuloendothelial Function," Rad. Res.; 16: 546-554. 1962.

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Yanki, et al., "Correlation between the Antitumor Activity of a Polysaccharide Schizophyllan and its Triple-Helical Conformation in Dilute Aqueous Solution". Biophys. Chem. (1983) 17: 337-342.

Yoxhida M, et al, "Soluble (1-->3)-beta-D-glucan purified from Candida albicans: biologic effects and distribution in blood and organs of rabbits," J Lab Clin Med 128(1): 103-114. Jul 1996. *Dept of Lab Med, U of Cal Sch of Med, San Francisco, CA.

Yoshida H., Ochiai M., Ashida M.; "Beta-1, 3-glucan receptor and peptidoglycan receptor are present as separate entities within insect prophenoloxidase activating system," Biochem Biophys Res Commun 141: 1177-1184. 1986.

Yoshizawa, et al, "Effects of Natural Human Interleukin-6 on Thrombopoiesis and Tumor Progression in Tumor-Bearing Mice", Cancer Letters; vol. 79, pp. 83-89. 1994.