- Antibiotic Resistance
- Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute
- What is the Best Beta Glucan
- Monoclonal (mAbs) Antibodies
- Dietary Supplement Sources
- What is a Dose
- Electricity and the Immune System
- The Effect of Electromagnetic Fields
- Biological Products And Disease Prevention
- Aging and the Immune System
- Immune Support and Travel
- Hematopoiesis and Beta Glucan
- Immunosenescence; Age-associated Immune Deficiency
- Innate Immunity and Beta 1,3-D Glucan
- The Lymphatic System
- Multiple Myeloma
- Beta 1,3-D Glucan Accepted for Inclusion in U.S. Screening Program
- Some More Susceptible to Staph Infections
- Uptake Mechanism of Beta Glucan
- The War Against Cancer-Can Beta Glucan Serve a Role?
- Weight Loss
- What is Beta Glucan?
Uptake Mechanism of Beta Glucan
By A. J. Lanigan The ileum is the section of the small intestine that extends from the jejunum portion of the small intestine to the beginning of the large intestine (colon). It is about 12 feet (3.6m) long. The jejunum is a part of the small bowel, located between the end of duodenum and the proximal part of ileum. The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine. The adult small intestine is about 20 feet (6.0m) long, and the jejunum forms a little less than half of the small intestine. The transition from jejunum to ileum is not marked by any specific anatomic structure.
Antigen uptake occurs primarily in the ileum area through specialized cells called M cells (M = microfold). Overlying follicles that help grab key particles surround the dome shaped center of the M cells. M cells take up particulate through a mechanical process called pinocytosis (the uptake by a cell by invagination). This is a physical grabbing of the particles and pulling them through the lining of the intestinal wall. A large number of T cells, B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells hover here and as the phagocytes engulf and digest antigen, they then present antigen markers to the T cells. It is remarkable that M cells will take soluble as well as particulate materials.
M cells also have the ability to take up entire bacterial pathogens such as salmonella, viruses and microspheres.Macrophages and other phagocytic APCs surround these areas and is key to continuous sampling of
Also found in this area are large amounts of antibodies (immunoglobulins - IgA and IgG). These antibodies are very important to helping deactivate bacterial toxins that interfere with phagocytosis (engulfing), chemotaxis (movement of immune cells), and other very important immune response activities.
The microfold (M) cell image to the right is a scanning electron micrograph of an M cell with adjacent enterocytes. The M cell has selectively bound E. coli 0157. Note that a thick brush border is lacking, facilitating the binding and uptake of microparticles, (courtesy of Dr. Tatsuo Yamamoto, Niigata University).
To have a clear understanding of this area of the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) is to appreciate one of the major ways that our immune system is kept aware of those things that are confronting us. This also leads us to understand why we advise that immune supplements such as beta glucan and aloe MPS be taken on an empty stomach. The M cells have the ability to identify, grab, and deliver into the lining of the intestinal wall solid particles as well as living pathogens. The size of these materials may be several microns in diameter and length.
We might use beta glucan as an example. This is a water insoluble particulate that is irregular in shape and depending upon the process (or non-process) used may vary in size from sub-micron (<1.0) to around 3-5 microns. Though not known exactly, there is a size of particle that would likely not pass (perhaps a size 12 boot) and if you apply your mental vision, there would be a limit as to how many can pass at one time or within a certain period. You have limiting factors of surface area and the volume that one of these vessels can hold until the last load has been processed. We, therefore, suggest that you take these materials on an empty stomach. This is not because the particle might react with food or other insoluble particulate, but that there will be competition at the site of uptake.
Likewise, the aloe MPS is best taken on an empty stomach if you wish to facilitate the highest levels of uptake per dose. Beta glucan and aloe MPS are both primarily comprised on long chain polysaccharides and uptake for both would be similar. I like the combination of these two because the GALT provides access to glucan sensitive and mannose (aloe) sensitive immune cells at the same time inside the M cell dome and surrounding tissues.
I like the combination of these two because the GALT provides access to glucan sensitive and mannose (aloe) sensitive immune cells at the same time inside the M cell dome and surrounding tissues.