Phagocytosis and Immune Support
What is Phagocytosis?
Phagocytosis is a major function of immune support. It is the starting point at which the immune system begins its attack on foreign invaders to not only destroy them, but to identify them.
There are many components of the immune system and each component has a specific role to play. Science has identified which components and processes play the most important role in immune support response. In most cases manufactures completely ignore these important indicators or conduct 'in-house' testing and use the results as proof that their products produce immune support results, however they do not test them against other products. In order to determine if a product actually produces real tangible results it must be tested against other products, further it should be done in an environment that is independent of the manufacturer to remove any questions on the quality of the results. Here are some of the most important components and processes of the immune system;
- Phagocytosis, which is described on this page.
- IL-2 production, or (IL-2) is a regulatory peptide that is required for growth and differentiation of lymphocytes and antigen-specific T lymphocytes.
- Superoxide Anion, is a compound that has several functions. It is utilized by the immune system to kill foreign pathogens and microorganisms.
- Nitrite Oxide Production, plays a important role in the immune system in which components produce nitrite oxide for the purpose of killing bacteria
Many immune support products that claim to support the immune system should produce good Phagocytosis characteristics, but do they? In the independent peer reviewed study "B1,3-Glucan: Silver Bullet or Hot Air; Vetvicka. Open Glycoscience, 2010, 3, 1-6" Beta Force Beta Glucan material was independently tested against over sixteen other immune support supplements for phagocytosis and the other listed processes and compounds listed above. Below you will see the graphed results of the study as well as a detailed explanation of the process/compound being studied.
Phagocytosis is a medical term referring to a process by which phagocytes (certain living cells) engulf or ingest other particles or cells. Phagocytes may be termed as free-living one-celled organisms e.g. amoeba or body cells i.e. white blood cells. Phagocytosis in sponges and amoebas refers to a process of feeding while in higher animals is simply a defense mechanism against invasion and infection of their body from antigens or foreign bodies. Dead tissues cells, protozoa, pigments, bacteria, various dust particles and other microscopic foreign bodies are some of the particles phagocytosed by the white blood cells. There are two types of phagocytes i.e. neutrophils and macrophages (found in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen and lungs).
Why is Phagocytosis Important?
Phagocytosis is one of the vital processes in the body as it performs a major role in defending the body against invasion and infection resulting from foreign bodies such as protozoa, bacteria, dust particles, pigments etc. this is achieved by use of two types of phagocytes i.e. neutrophils and macrophages both of which are attracted to the infected area by signals released by the infected tissues and bacteria or by chemical reaction between blood system proteins complementary system and the bacteria. Phagocytosis have the ability to destroy invaders, however it primary responsibility is the process of collecting and carrying pathogens to lymphocytes which destroys them.
What is the Role of Phagocytosis in the Body?
The fist role of Phagocytosis involves initial encountering with pathogens whereby the phagocytes act as sentinels i.e. by waiting to come across any microbes that may enter the body then alerting the body`s immune system for the beginning of various defense mechanism. The second role involves recognition of pathogens by use of certain protein found in their membranes, thereby enabling immunology process to begin and lastly releasing cytokines i.e. regulatory molecules which help in coordination of an immune response. They play an important role in specific immune response.
In mammalian immune system, Phagocytosis is activated via connection to PAMPS (Pathogen-associated molecular patterns, which activates NF-kB. Engulfment of pathogens is enhanced by anti-myosin contractile system which is merged with the lysosome hence resulting to oxygen-dependant or oxygen-independent degradation which boost the body immune system and support for destruction of bacteria.
In another independent peer-reviewed medical article Beta Force Beta Glucan provided a 20% higher phagocytosis response rate then it closest competitor. It also provided the best results for the other following immune support responses;
- Complement and its role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Dunkelberger, J., Song, W., Cell Research (2010) 20:34–50. doi: 10.1038/cr.2009.139
- B1,3-Glucan: Silver Bullet or Hot Air; Vetvicka. Open Glycoscience, 2010, 3, 1-6