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Superoxide Anion and Its Functions

Superoxide Anion and Its Functions
To review the lastest peer-reviewed test results on immune system supplements and super anion production click here

A superoxide anion is a compound with the formula O2. It is a molecule that has two oxygen atoms bonded together, with an extra electron, giving the molecule a negative charge. The superoxide anion is produced by a one-electron reduction of O2. This reaction occurs commonly in nature. By having an unpaired electron, the molecule is a free radical[1].

Superoxide Anion and Its Functions

The immune system is made up of many components with each one having a special role to carry out. Superoxide anion plays on of the most important parts in destroying invaders. It is one of the most powerful compounds of immune support Does your immune support product help support proper Superoxide anion production?

In most cases manufactures completely ignore this vital process and fail or refuse to even look for it in any 'in-house' tests they may conduct on their product, if they test at all (many don't) and if they do, did these 'in-house' tests follow the proper peer reviewed procedures? That is why it is so important to ensure that there are independent peer reviewed studies conducted on the immune support products you are interested in purchasing. This will remove any questions on the quality of the results. Here are some of the most important components and processes of the immune system;

  • IL-2 production, or (IL-2) is a regulatory peptide that is required for growth and differentiation of lymphocytes and antigen-specific T lymphocytes.
  • Phagocytosis; is a major function of immune support. It is the starting point of the immune systems attack on a invader...
  • Nitrite Oxide Production, plays a important role in the immune system in which components produce nitrite oxide for the purpose of killing bacteria
phagocytosis immune response
Sixteen of the most popular immune support products were tested for Superoxide Anion production. Beta Force beta glucan provided the best results[6].

In "B1,3-Glucan: Silver Bullet or Hot Air; Vetvicka. Open Glycoscience, 2010, 3, 1-6" a the independent, published, peer reviewed study, Beta Force Beta Glucan material was independently tested against over sixteen other immune support supplements for superoxide anion and the other listed processes and compounds listed above. Below you will see the graphed results of the study as well as a more detailed explanation of the importance of the compound known as superoxide anion.

In the body, superoxide anions have several functions. The unpaired electron makes the anion toxic. Taking advantage of its toxic traits, it can be used by the immune system to kill foreign pathogens and microorganisms[2]. Phagocytes can produce superoxide anions in large quantities. Phagocytes engulf foreign cells and produce superoxide anions with an enzyme NADPH oxidase[3]. The anions kill the bacteria, one of the most effective methods of ridding the body of pathogens. The process of engulfing cells and killing them with superoxide anions is one of the main defense systems of the body and is essential for a healthy human.

Beta Glucan

Superoxide anions while having positive uses in the body, can also be dangerous. Since superoxide is toxic, it will damage every cell that it comes into contact with. Many cells and organisms are able to produce a compound called superoxide dismutase which can neutralize the free radical and prevent it from causing damage. Almost all organisms that live in the presence of oxygen have the ability to produce superoxide dismutase, and the ability to neutralize anions[4].

In addition to superoxide dismutase, other compounds called antioxidants have the ability to neutralize free radicals and prevent cellular damage. Vitamins C and E have been shown to have antioxidant activity[5]. While the exact mechanisms of each vitamin is not known, studies have shown that individuals who have diets high in antioxidant rich foods show fewer signs of aging and have fewer chronic diseases.

Superoxide anions are essential for the phagocytosis function. Scientists are always studying this molecule to determine how it works and its function in the human body.

In another independent peer-reviewed medical article Beta Force Beta Glucan provided a higher response rate then it closest competitor[6]. It also provided the best results for the other following immune support responses;

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